On 4G (LTE- Long Term Evolution). This is why selecting the right equipment is so important for each individual property. Choosing the right equipment is paramount and correct and careful installations and positioning of the equipment will determine the speeds you will get. Choosing cheaper equipment will get most people home broadband on the 4G network, but it can be as much as 50% lower if it is not done correctly, and customers who can potentially get it are told to frequently it is not possible.
LTE line of sight is very important. LTE typically has a latency speed of 20-40ms, and the speed is dependent on the best possible line of sight, and the bandwidth of the mast (see below). The directional antenna, however, has to be pointed at an LTE mast to be able to pick up a signal (think of the traditional TV antenna on your roof). Typically, directional antennas offer higher performance as typically they have higher gain, but they need to be installed correctly. A strong signal is possible with these boosting antennas but there is a ‘But’ and that is we have to consider the terrain and the ‘Line of Sight’ of the chosen cell tower. The cell tower also has to be pointing in your direction, as 4G Masts, are not 360 degrees, and are pointing in certain directions due to their own mobile network coverage. We always choose the best option for you based on these considerations.
A 4G internal router with an outdoor antenna. These options we rarely provide. The main problem is that we only have 5m of cable to use on a 9dBi gain antenna We lose ½ of the gain of the antenna in terms of what it is used for.
The most popular choice is our all-in-one External Router/Antenna This is a Mikrotik SXT LTE or the LHG Kit. The SXT is in fact very small only 14cm in diameter and is a 9dBi gain antenna. As the antenna has the 4G router inside it, it is then cabled by ONE ethernet cable, and connected to an Indoor Router (Access Point). Which powers the whole system. The Power is because we use PoE or Power over Ethernet technology. The indoor Router is known as an access point, as an Access Point is in fact a WIFI/Ethernet indoor router (without the modem/or modem turn off). As the Router is in the antenna, there is no loss of any kind of the antenna, as there is no low loss cable. In fact, the ethernet cable can be up to 100m long.
The larger LHG kit has a much larger gain of 17Bdi, for people with a poor line of sight or more remote areas to get a good quality of signal and signal strength.
Lastly, BUT THE MOST IMPORTANT THING is not signal strength, but the SINR (signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio), which gives us the quality of the signal, or in better terms is a quantity used to give theoretical upper bounds on channel capacity (or the rate of information transfer) in wireless communication systems. The higher the number, the faster the throughput is, therefore speeds will be greater.
Below are explanations of these values (and also RSSI in relation to LTE):
SINR – The signal interference-to-noise ratio of the given signal. >=20 is excellent and 13-20 is good.
RSRP – The average power received from a single Reference signal, and Its typical range is around -44dbm (good) to -140dbm(bad).
RSRQ – Indicates quality of the received signal, and its range is typically -19.5dB(bad) to -3dB (good).
The equipment we use tells us this information for the best installation.
As a result, we can tell whether an SXT or the larger more powerful LHG is needed. The SXT has a 9dBi gain and the LHG has a 17dBi gain
How much gain do I actually need?
The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses the magnitude of a physical quantity (usually power or intensity) relative to a specified or implied reference level.”
Simply put, dB is a unit of power (intensity).
|The following equation is used to calculate power gain of the isotropic antenna:|
|G(dBi) = 10log(G)|
|G(dBi) – power gain of the isotropic antenna expressed in decibels
(G) – how much stronger the antenna transmits or receives signal compared to the isotropic antenna (in a linear scale).
|Example. Let’s calculate how much stronger a 17 dBi antenna receives (transmits) the signal compared to the isotropic antenna.
|17 dBi antenna will receive (transmit) the signal 50.11 times stronger than the isotropic antenna.
9 dBi antenna will receive (transmit) the signal 8 times stronger than the isotropic antenna.